Black, White, and Red pepper
Pepper (Piper nigrum) is a berry vine, a tropical climbing shrub from the Piperaceae family of vines, native to India. The pepper grows spontaneously and can reach 6 to 10 meters in height. It likes warm (average 24°C) and humid (1,500 mm / year) climates and well-drained soils. Multiplication is done by cuttings.
The fruits are presented in the form of a suspended bunch of 20 to 30 berries pressed against the axis, which change from green to red and then to brown as they ripen. Pepper grains, be it green, black or white, come from the same plant and correspond to different stages of maturation: – Green pepper is obtained by moist conservation of immature berries, – White pepper consists of ripe berries, without pericarp, – Black pepper is obtained from almost ripe, blanched and dried berries.
It is the first among the spices in the world. It is marketed as whole grains, crushed or powdered. As an aromatic and exciting condiment, pepper is a stimulant with a pungent flavor, in varying degrees. Pepper owes its spicy flavor to piperidine amides.
The ripe fruits of the pepper contain an essential oil rich in alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and beta-karyophylene. With hot, stimulating, analgesic and aphrodisiac properties, it is used in phyto-aroma therapy. Pepper is known for its healing and stimulating properties in digestive secretions.